Researchers from the University of Toronto’ Faculty of Kinesiology & Physical Education (KPE) collaborated with Special Olympics Ontario to explore perceptions of inclusion among students and coaches in school-based Unified Sports programs.
Unified Sports are sport programs that offer opportunities for students with and without intellectual disabilities to participate on sports teams together.
“The intent of Unified Sports is to provide an inclusive experience by bringing together students with and without intellectual disabilities, but are these experiences truly inclusive and what does inclusion look and feel like in these sport programs?” says Kelly Arbour-Nicitopoulos, an associate professor at KPE and principal investigator of the study. “If the students’ experiences are not fully inclusive, then how can inclusion be better fostered?
The study, recently published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, found that students’ and coaches’ beliefs and attitudes towards Unified Sports played a key role in the implementation of the sport programming in schools. The coaches specifically influenced the inclusive nature of the teams based on their own understanding and beliefs around inclusion such as what roles the students without disabilities have in Unified Sports.
“Which of the student athletes do the coaches select to take on a leadership role and how exactly are these decisions made?” says Roxy O’Rourke, a PhD candidate in Arbour-Nicitopoulos’s ADAPT lab for accessible and inclusive physical activity and first author of the paper. ”Are all students provided with the opportunity to play to the best of their abilities on the same team regardless of their experience with disability or not?”
The researchers found that students with and without intellectual disabilities, as well as the coaches, value the inclusive nature of Unified Sports – in particular, how an inclusive sport program model implemented within the school system can translate to more inclusive practices and behaviours outside of the sport setting. That includes encouraging student groups to mingle at lunchtime and in hallways during breaks.
“Increased social participation positively impacts the well-being of all students,” Arbour-Nicitopoulos says.
The findings also highlight the areas for growth and the influential role of coaches, as well as teammates, on sports teams.
“If the idea is to have consistent implementation of programming, then there needs to be more evidence-based educational resources outlining these expectations and how to lead and develop Unified Sports programs within the school setting,” says Arbour-Nicitopoulos.
“Some of the language and practices used by participants highlight the need to focus on language choice within the sport environment, and to clearly establish the roles and responsibilities of all athletes and students engaged in the Unified Sports environment.”
The researchers suggest future studies should explore training for coaches on inclusive practices – for example, language used in the sports environment when working with individuals with and without disabilities.
This study was funded by a grant from Special Olympics Canada and co-authored by Krystn Orr, a PhD graduate from the ADAPT lab, Rebecca Renwick, a professor in the department of occupational science and occupational therapy in the Temerty Faculty of Medicine, Virginia Wright, a registered physiotherapist and senior scientist in the Bloorview Research Institute (BRI) and professor in the department of physical therapy and rehabilitation sciences institute in the Temerty Faculty of Medicine, James Noronha, a senior consultant at Special Olympics Ontario, and Kirsten Bobbie, manager of games and competitions at Special Olympics Canada.
This story was originally published by the University of Toronto on June 6, 2023.